- 저자Hyun-Jeong Yang, Noriko Setou, and Eugene Koh
- 저널명International Journal of Environmental Research
- 초록Recent findings suggest a correlation between COVID-19 and diabetes, although the underlying causes are still little understood. COVID-19 infection tends to induce severe symptoms in patients with underlying diabetes, increasing their mortality rate. Moreover, COVID-19 itself appears to be a diabetogenic factor. In addition, mental health conditions, such as depression due to lockdown and anxiety about infection, were found to affect glycemic control and immunity, highlighting the importance of mental health care during the pandemic. Mind–Body Intervention (MBI), which includes meditation, yoga, and qigong, has emerged as a tool for mental health management due to its effects on stress reduction and the promotion of mental and physical well-being. Here, we review the latest randomized controlled trials to determine the effects of MBI on glycemic control and the immune system and discuss the underlying mechanisms by which MBI facilitates the virtuous cycle of stress management, glycemic control, and immune modulation. Furthermore, we examine the actual utilization of MBI during the COVID-19 pandemic era through recent studies. With proper online education, non-pharmacological MBI may be more widely used as an important tool for self-health care that complements the usual treatment of COVID-19 patients and survivors.
- 저자Hojung Kang, Seung Chan An, Byeongkwan Kim, Youngjae Song, Jaesung Yoo, Eugene Koh, Seungheun Lee, and Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 저널명Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- 초록Meditation and acupressure-like stimulations have been shown to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether a short bout of mind-body intervention combined with meditation and acupressure-like stimulation was able to alleviate shoulder pain and improve its function in a short time window. Sixty-five adults with shoulder pain were recruited and randomly classified into two groups. One group participated in an intervention which consisted of acupressure-like stimulation and meditation over a 5 min period. The other group was instructed to rest during this time. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and objective constant scores were measured before and after intervention to determine shoulder pain and range of motion (ROM), respectively. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction and a regression analysis were performed. VAS pain, objective constant score, flexion, abduction, and external rotation score showed significant interactions between time and group. The pain intensity was significantly reduced, while flexion and abduction were significantly improved, in the experimental group compared to the control group, after the intervention. In addition, the change of flexion negatively correlated with the change of pain intensity in the experimental group, but not in the control group. These results show that a short-term application of mind-body intervention significantly alleviates shoulder pain and improves shoulder movement, suggesting its potential use as a therapy for people with shoulder pain.
- 저자Ahreum Lee, Eugene Koh, Dalnim Kim, Namkyu Lee, Soo Min Cho, Young Joo Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho, and Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 저널명Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1098
- 초록Dendropanax trifidus (DT) is a medicinal herb native to East Asia, which has been used extensively for its therapeutic properties in traditional medicine. In this study, we examined the effects of DT sap on the regulation of body weight and muscle metabolism in mice. Obese model db/db mice were administered daily with DT sap or vehicle control over a 6-week period. The effects of DT sap on muscle metabolism were studied in C2C12 muscle cells, where glycolytic and mitochondrial respiration rates were monitored. As AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of metabolism and plays an important function as an energy sensor in muscle tissue, signaling pathways related with AMPK were also examined. We found that DT sap inhibited body weight increase in db/db, db/+, and +/+ mice over a 6-week period, while DT sap-treated muscle cells showed increased muscle metabolism and also increased phosphorylation of AMPK and Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC). Finally, we found that DT sap, which is enriched in estrogen in our previous study, significantly activates estrogen alpha receptor in a concentration-dependent manner, which can drive the activation of AMPK signaling and may be related to the muscle metabolism and weight changes observed here.
- 저자Ahreum Lee, Yuki Sugiura, Ik-Hyun Cho, Noriko Setou, Eugene Koh, Gyun Jee Song, Seungheun Lee and Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 초록Extracts of medicinal plants have been widely used to benefit human health. Dendropanax morbiferus (DM) has been well-studied for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, while Dendropanax trifidus (DT) is a lesser-known ecotype phylogenetically similar to DM, which has received significantly less attention. Studies thus far have primarily focused on leaf and bark extracts of DM, and not much is yet known about the properties of either DM or DT sap. Therefore, here we performed in vivo toxicity and efficacy studies, in order to assess the biological effects of DT sap. To establish a safe dosage range, single dose or two-week daily administrations of various concentrations were performed for ICR mice. Measurements of survival ratio, body/organ weight, blood chemistry, histochemistry and Western blots were performed. A concentration of ≤0.5 mg/g DT sap was found to be safe for long-term administration. Interestingly, DT sap significantly reduced blood glucose in female mice. In addition, increasing concentrations of DT sap decreased phosphorylated (p) insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1(ser1101)/IRS-1 in liver tissues, while increasing pAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/AMPK in both the liver and spleen. To analyze its components, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of DT sap was performed in comparison with Acer saccharum (AS) sap. Components such as estradiol, trenbolone, farnesol, dienogest, 2-hydroxyestradiol and linoleic acid were found to be highly enriched in DT sap compared to AS sap. Our results indicate DT sap exhibits hypoglycemic effects, which may be due to the abundance of the bioactive components.
- 저자Hyun-Jeong Yang, Eugene Koh, and Yunjeong Kang
- 초록Women have been reported to be more vulnerable to the development, prognosis and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, yet the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and strategies to overcome them are still relatively undeveloped. Studies show that women’s brains are more sensitive to factors affecting mental health such as depression and stress than men’s brains. In women, poor mental health increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and conversely, cardiovascular disease increases the incidence of mental illness such as depression. In connection with mental health and cardiovascular health, the presence of gender differences in brain activation, cortisol secretion, autonomic nervous system, vascular health and inflammatory response has been observed. This connection suggests that strategies to manage women’s mental health can contribute to preventing cardiovascular disease. Mind–body interventions, such as meditation, yoga and qigong are forms of exercise that strive to actively manage both mind and body. They can provide beneficial effects on stress reduction and mental health. They are also seen as structurally and functionally changing the brain, as well as affecting cortisol secretion, blood pressure, heart rate variability, immune reactions and reducing menopausal symptoms, thus positively affecting women’s cardiovascular health. In this review, we investigate the link between mental health, brain activation, HPA axis, autonomic nervous system, blood pressure and immune system associated with cardiovascular health in women and discuss the effects of mind–body intervention in modulating these factors.
- 저자Ahreum Lee, Oh Wook Kwon, Kwi Ryun Jung, Gyun Jee Song, Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 저널명Journal of Ginseng Research
Background: Abnormalities of myelin, which increases the efficiency of action potential conduction, are found in neurological disorders. Korean red ginseng (KRG) demonstrates therapeutic efficacy against some of these conditions, however effects on oligodendrocyte (OL)s are not well known. Here, we examined the effects of KRG-derived components on development and protection of OL-lineage cells.
Methods: Primary OL precursor cell (OPC) cultures were prepared from neonatal mouse cortex. The protective efficacies of the KRG components were examined against inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. For in vivo function of Rb1 on myelination, after 10 days of oral gavage into adult male mice, forebrains were collected. OPC proliferation were assessed by BrdU incorporation, and differentiation and myelination were examined by qPCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry.
Results: The non-saponin promoted OPC proliferation, while the saponin promoted differentiation. Both processes were mediated by AKT and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. KRG extract, the saponin and non-saponin protected OPCs against oxidative stress, and both KRG extract and the saponin significantly increased the expression of the antioxidant enzyme. Among 11 major ginsenosides tested, Rb1 significantly increased OL membrane size in vitro. Moreover, Rb1 significantly increased myelin formation in adult mouse brain.
Conclusion: All KRG components prevented OPC deaths under oxidative stress. While non-saponin promoted proliferation, saponin fraction increased differentiation and OL membrane size. Furthermore, among all the tested ginsenosides, Rb1 showed the biggest increase in the membrane size and significantly enhanced myelination in vivo. These results imply therapeutic potentials of KRG and Rb1 for myelin-related disorders.
- 저자Hyun-Jeong Yang, Eugene Koh, Min-Kyu Sung and Hojung Kang
- 저널명International Journal of Molecular Sciences
- 초록Studies have evidenced that epigenetic marks associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be inherited from parents or acquired through fetal and early-life events, as well as through lifelong environments or lifestyles, which can increase the risk of diabetes in adulthood. However, epigenetic modifications are reversible, and can be altered through proper intervention, thus mitigating the risk factors of T2D. Mind–body intervention (MBI) refers to interventions like meditation, yoga, and qigong, which deal with both physical and mental well-being. MBI not only induces psychological changes, such as alleviation of depression, anxiety, and stress, but also physiological changes like parasympathetic activation, lower cortisol secretion, reduced inflammation, and aging rate delay, which are all risk factors for T2D. Notably, MBI has been reported to reduce blood glucose in patients with T2D. Herein, based on recent findings, we review the effects of MBI on diabetes and the mechanisms involved, including epigenetic modifications.
- 저자Min-Kyu Sung, Na Hyun Ha, Ul Soon Lee, Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 저널명Nursing Open
- 초록Aim: We aimed to reveal the relationship of meditation with emotional intelligence (EI), sleep quality and melatonin level. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Our current research was performed on middle-aged women. EI scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and night-time saliva melatonin were measured for 65 participants including 33 meditators and 32 controls. Results: The meditation group showed a significantly higher EI score than the control group. In the regression analysis between EI and age, only the meditation group showed a significant positive correlation. The Pearson correlation analysis among all participants revealed a significant negative correlation between PSQI and EI. There was no significant group difference in the melatonin and PSQI.
- 저자Min-Kyu Sung , Ul Soon Lee, Na Hyun Ha, Eugene Koh, Hyun-Jeong Yang
Owing to hormonal changes, women experience various psychophysiological alterations over a wide age range, which may result in decreased quality of life as well as in increased risks of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. Although studies have been performed to research complementary methods, such as meditation, the research field still requires an adequate amount of studies for public health guidelines. This pilot cross-sectional study aims to investigate a potential association of meditation with menopausal symptoms and blood chemistry for healthy women. In this study, data of 65 healthy women (age range 25–67) including 33 meditation practitioners and 32 meditation-naïve controls were analyzed to compare the Menopausal Rating Scale scores and blood chemistry with 7 more dropouts in the blood chemistry. For blood chemistry, nine components including glucose (GLU) and highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were measured. Two-way analysis of variance was performed by dividing the total participants into 2 groups: premenopausal and postmenopausal participants. Compared to the control group, the meditation group showed a trend of reductions in the Menopausal Rating Scale total score (P=.054) and its 2 subcomponents: depressive mood (P=.064) and irritability (P=.061). In HDL level, there was a significant interaction between group and menopausal state (P=.039) with following post hoc results: among the premenopausal participants, a significant increase in the meditation group compared to the control group (P=.005); among the control group, a significant increase in the postmenopausal compared to the premenopausal participants (P=.030). In GLU level, there was a mild interaction between group and menopausal state (P=.070) with following post hoc results: among the postmenopausal participants, a trend of increase in the control group compared to the meditation group (P=.081); among the control group, a significant increase in the postmenopausal compared to the premenopausal participants (P=.040). Our research suggests a potential association of practicing meditation with alleviations in menopausal symptoms and changes in blood chemistry, warranting further studies with a longitudinal study design and larger populations to understand the underlying causal relationships.
- 저자Hojung Kang, Seung Chan An, Nah Ok Kim, Minkyu Sung, Yunjung Kang, Ul Soon Lee and Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 저널명Frontiers in Psychology
- 초록Numerous studies have revealed that meditative movement changes brain activity and improves the cognitive function of adults. However, there is still insufficient data on whether meditative movement contributes to the cognitive function of adolescents whose brain is still under development. Therefore, this study aimed to uncover the effects of meditative movement on the cognitive performance and its relation with brain activity in adolescents. Forty healthy adolescent participants (mean age of 17∼18) were randomly allocated into two groups: meditative movement and control group. The meditative movement group was instructed to perform the meditative movement, twice a day for 9 min each, for a duration of 3 weeks. During the same time of the day, the control group was instructed to rest under the same condition. To measure changes in cognitive abilities, a dual n-back task was performed before and after the intervention and analyzed by repeated two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). During the task, electroencephalogram signals were collected to find the relation of brain activity with working memory performance and was analyzed by regression analysis. A repeated two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction showed that working memory performance was significantly increased by meditative movement compared with the retest effect. Based on regression analysis, the amplitude of high-beta rhythm in the F3 channel showed a significant correlation with dual n-back score in the experimental group after the intervention, while there was no correlation in the control group. Our results suggest that meditative movement improves the performance of working memory, which is related to brain activity in adolescents.
- 저자Mohammad Al Mijan, Ji Young Kim, So-Young Moon, Sun-Hye Choi, Seung-Yeol Nah, Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 저널명Frontiers in Pharmacology
Although evidence on myelin diseases is steadily accumulating, effective preventive or therapeutic strategies against them have not been established so far. Ginseng is well known for its beneficial effects on health and diseases; however, detailed studies on ginseng’s effects on myelin-producing oligodendrocytes have not been performed yet. In this study, we investigated the function of gintonin—an active component of ginseng—on the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. We performed real-time percutaneous coronary intervention, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry on primary oligodendrocyte precursor cell cultures and in vitro myelinating co-cultures. Our results show that gintonin stimulates oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation. Gintonin’s effect was inhibited by Ki16425, an antagonist of lysophosphatidic acid 1/3 receptors. Interestingly, with regard to cell differentiation, gintonin facilitated late differentiation of oligodendrocyte development, but not early differentiation. Moreover, it showed protective effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death, potentially by modulating unfolded protein responses. Our results suggest that gintonin is a potential therapeutic candidate in the treatment of myelin diseases.
- 저자Ji-Young Kim , Ju-Young Yoon , Yuki Sugiura , Soo-Kyoung Lee , Jae-Don Park , Gyun-Jee Song and Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 저널명Royal Society Open Science, 6(6), p.190266.
Treatment of multiple sclerosis is effective when anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and regenerative strategies are combined. Dendropanax morbiferus (DM) has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative properties, which may be beneficial for multiple sclerosis. However, there have been no reports on the effects of DM on myelination, which is critical for regenerative processes. To know whether DM benefits myelination, we checked differentiation and myelination of oligodendrocytes (OLs) in various primary culture systems treated with DM leaf EtOH extracts or control. DM extracts increased the OL membrane size in the mixed glial and pure OL precursor cell (OPC) cultures and changed OL-lineage gene expression patterns in the OPC cultures. Western blot analysis of DM-treated OPC cultures showed upregulation of MBP and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In myelinating cocultures, DM extracts enhanced OL differentiation, followed by increased axonal contacts and myelin gene upregulations such as Myrf, CNP and PLP. Phytochemical analysis by LC-MS/MS identified multiple components from DM extracts, containing bioactive molecules such as quercetin, cannabidiol, etc. Our results suggest DM extracts enhance OL differentiation, followed by an increase in membrane size and axonal contacts, thereby indicating enhanced myelination. In addition, we found that DMextracts contain multiple bioactive components, warranting further studies in relation to finding effective components for enhancing myelination.