- 저자Seung-Ho Lee, Sun-Mi Hwang, Do-Hyung Kang, Hyun-Jeong Yang
- 저널명Medicine. 98(19):e15574, May 2019.
Background: Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are chronic diseases, which generally require lifetime care. Meditation and yoga can be complementary to pharmacological therapies according to the scientific evidences so far. Brain education-based meditation (BEM) is a technique, which has been known to change brain structure, psychology, and physiology of healthy adult participants. This randomized, nonblinded pilot trial aimed to examine whether BEM affects the conditions of patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes compared with health education classes.
Methods: We randomly allocated 48 patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes to BEM (n=24) or health education (n=24) classes in the Ulsan Junggu Public Health Center in Korea, where the classes were run during the same period and explored the impact of 8-week practice on the serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, creatinine, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Total RNA was extracted to examine inflammatory gene expressions from the whole blood using PAXgene blood RNA System. In addition, self-reports on mental/physical health were evaluated. The Student’s t test, chi-squared test, and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis.
Results: The number of people who participated until the completion of the study was 14 in the control and 21 in the BEM group. After 8 weeks, LDL cholesterol level was significantly decreased in the BEM group after the intervention (13.82mg/dL reduction, P<.05), while it was not significantly altered in the control group. The expression of inflammatory genes was significantly reduced after 8 weeks of the BEM training (0.3-, 0.5-, and 0.2-fold change for NFKB2, RELA, and IL1B, respectively, all P<.05). In the item analysis of mental/physical health self-reports, a significant improvement was confirmed as follows: increases in focus, confidence, relaxation, and happiness; decreases in fatigue, anger, and loneliness (all P<.05). There were no important adverse events or side effects by BEM intervention.
Conclusion: Compared to health education, BEM helps lower LDL cholesterol level and the inflammatory gene expression in the patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Moreover, BEM induces positive effects on the self-reported mental/physical states, warranting further study.
- 저자J.H.Jang, J.H.Kim, J.Y.Yun, S.H.Choi, S.C.An, D.H.Kang
- 저널명Mindfulness (2018)s12671-018-0928-x
- 초록The majority of meditation involves focusing attention on internal events or sensations and becoming aware of emotions. The insula cortex, through a functional connection with the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions, plays a key role in integrating external sensory information with internal bodily state signals and emotional awareness. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the resting-state functional connectivity of the insula with other brain regions in meditation practitioners and control subjects. Thirty-five BrainWave Vibration meditation practitioners and 33 controls without meditation experience were included in this study. All subjects underwent 4.68-min resting-state functional scanning runs using magnetic resonance imaging. The anterior and posterior insulae were chosen as seed regions for the functional connectivity map. Meditation practitioners showed significantly greater insula-related functional connectivity in the thalamus, caudate, middle frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus than did controls. Control subjects demonstrated greater functional connectivity with the posterior insula in the parahippocampal gyrus. Our findings suggest that the practice of Brain Wave Vibration meditation may be associated with functional differences in regions related to focused attention, executive control, and emotional awareness and regulation.
- 저자S.H.Choi, S.C.An, U.S.Lee, J.Y.Yun, J.H.Jang, D.H.Kang
- 저널명Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 2018;16(4):391-397
- 초록Objective: Meditation can elicit trait-like changes in psychological and social styles, as well as enhancement of emotional regulatory capacity. We investigated the relation between personality traits and emotional intelligence in meditation practitioners. Methods: Seventy-two long-term practitioners of mind-body training (MBT) and 62 healthy comparative individuals participated in the study. The participants completed emotional intelligence questionnaires and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Results: The MBT group revealed higher scores on all five emotional intelligence factors than did those in the control group, such as emotional awareness and expression, empathy, emotional thinking, emotional application, and emotional regulation (all p≤0.001). MBT practitioners also had higher scores on the intuition of perceiving function (t =-2.635, p =0.010) and on the feeling of the judging function (t =-3.340, p =0.001) of the MBTI compared with those in the control group. Only the MBT group showed a robust relationship with every factor of emotional intelligence and MBTI-defined intuitive styles, indicating that higher scores of emotional intelligence were related to higher scores for intuition. Conclusion: Emotional intelligence of meditation practitioners showed notable relationships with some features of personality trait. In-depth associations between emotional intelligence and personality traits would help to foster psychological functions in meditation practitioners.
- 저자오주원, 신재한, 강윤정, 연주헌
- 저널명Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology
- 초록본 연구는 중년 직장 여성의 스트레스와 우울을 감소시키기 위한 뇌교육 기반 기공프로그램을 개발하고 프로그램의 효과를 검증하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 종속변수를 측정하기 위한 도구로 스트레스의 정도를 측정하는 질문지 척도와 우울의 정도를 측정하는 질문지 척도를 사용하였으며, 이들의 생화학적 변화를 확인하고자 혈액을 분석하였다. 연구대상은 전남의 oo대학교 영양팀 40~60대 여성 40명 (20명 실험집단, 20명 통제집단)을 대상으로 하였다. 실험집단과 통제집단 모두 사전과 사후에 스트레스 척도와 우울척도 설문을 실시하고 혈액을 채취하였다. 실험집단은 주 2회(50분) 12주간 뇌교육기반 기공 프로그램을 실시하였으며, 통제집단은 하지 않았다. 자료 분석은 독립표본 t검증, 대응표본 t검증 및 two-way ANOVA분석이 사용되었다. 연구결과는 뇌교육 기반 기공 프로그램이 중년 직장여성의 우울의 정도를 감소시키는 것으로 나타났으며, 스트레스 정도에서는 유의미한 감소가 나타나지 않았다. 혈액 분석 결과, Insulin, Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol에서 통제집단에 비하여 실험집단에서 감소율이 더 높게 나타났지만 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 이러한 결과는 뇌교육 기반 기공 프로그램이 중년여성의 우울정도를 감소시키는 데 영향을 미치는 것이라 할 수 있겠으나 생물학적인 지표의 확인은 앞으로의 연구에서 밝혀져야 할 것이다.
- 저자심준영, 유성모, 신재한, 강윤정, 연주헌
- 저널명Korean Journal of Gerontological Social Welfare vol. 73(1), pp. 163-186
- 초록본 연구는 국학기공 수련이 여성노인의 심박변이도(HRV)와 혈중 세로토닌 농도에 미치는 영향을 알아보는데 있다. 이를 위하여 여성노인 40명을 대상으로 실험집단 20명과 대조집단 20명으로 구분하고 실험집단에 대해 10주간, 주 2회, 회당 60분씩 국학기공 프로그램을 실시하였다. 분석결과, 심박변이도는 SDNN Index, RMSSD, pNN50에서 실험집단의 평균값이 대조집단에 비해 유의하게 높게 나타났으며, 우울의 지표가 되는 세로토닌 농도에서도 실험집단의 평균값이 유의하게 더 많은 증가를 보였다. 이러한 결과는 국학기공 수련이 여성노인의 스트레스에 대한 생리적 회복탄력성을 높이고, 우울감을 해소하여 생리적 건강상태를 개선하는데 도움을 줄 수 있음을 시사한다.
- 저자신재한, 강호중, 안승찬
- 저널명한국산학기술학회논문지(Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society) Vol. 18, No. 2 pp. 374-382, 2017
- 초록본 연구에서는 고등학생을 대상으로 배꼽힐링 프로그램을 개발하고 적용한 후, 뇌파 검사를 통해 뇌파 활성도를 측정함으로써 그에 따른 효과성을 검증하는데 그 연구의 목적이 있다. 본 연구에 A고등학생 19명(남학생 8명, 여학생 11명)이 참여 하였으며 실험에 참여한 학생들은 2주 동안 매일 2회씩(아침, 저녁) 5분간 배꼽힐링 프로그램을 실시하였다. 효과검증을 위해 피험자의 각성상태 및 안정상태에서의 뇌파를 측정하였으며 스트루프 과제중의 뇌파의 변화를 관찰하였다. 이후 배꼽힐링을 약 5분간 실시하고 1분간의 휴식을 취한 후 동일한 과정을 반복하였다. 연구 결과, 배꼽힐링 프로그램을 통해 스트루프 과제 중 각성상태 대비 M-Beta파, H-Beta파, 그리고 Gamma파의 감소량이 줄어들었으며 안정상태 대비 Alpha파, SMR파의 감소량이 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 배꼽힐링을 통해 피험자들이 스트레스 상황에서의 집중력, 몰입력 등이 향상되었으며 심리적 안정상태도 유지한다는 것을 시사한다. 이는 학생들의 연구 후 인터뷰 내용과도 일치 한다. 따라서, 본 연구의 결론을 제시하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 배꼽힐링 프로그램은 고등학생의 스트레스 해소에 효과가 있기 때문에, 학업 스트레스를 많이 받는 수험생을 대상으로 배꼽힐링 프로그램을 실시할 필요가 있다. 둘째, 배꼽힐링 프로그램은 고등학생의 집중력과 몰입력을 증가시키는 효과가 있기 때문에, 복잡하거나 어려운 특정 과제를 해결하기 전에 배꼽힐링 프로그램을 실시할 필요가 있다.
- 저자D.H.Kang, H.J.Jo, W.H.Jung, S.H.Kim, Y.H.Jung, C.H.Choi,
- 저널명Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 8, 27-33
- 초록A convergent line of neuroscientific evidence suggests that meditation alters the functional and structural plasticity of distributed neural processes underlying attention and emotion. The purpose of this study was to examine the brain structural differences between a well-matched sample of longterm meditators and controls. We employed whole-brain cortical thickness analysis, based on magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging to quantify white matter integrity in the brains of 46 experienced meditators compared with 46 matched meditation-naïve volunteers. Meditators, compared with controls, showed significantly greater cortical thickness in the anterior regions of the brain, located in frontal and temporal areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal cortex, temporal pole, and the middle and interior temporal cortices. Significantly thinner cortical thickness was found in the posterior regions of the brain, located in the parietal and occipital areas, including the postcentral cortex, inferior parietal cortex, middle occipital cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, in the region adjacent to the medial prefrontal cortex, both higher fractional anisotropy values and greater cortical thickness were observed. Our findings suggest that long-term meditators have structural differences in both gray and white matter.
- 저자Deborah Bowden, Claire Gaudry, Seung Chan An, John Gruzelier
- 저널명Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012, Article ID 234713, 13 pages
- 초록This randomised trial compared the effects of BrainWave Vibration (BWV) training, which involves rhythmic yoga-like meditative exercises, with Iyengar yoga and Mindfulness. Iyengar provided a contrast for the physical components and mindfulness for the "mental" components of BWV. 35 healthy adults completed 10 75-minute classes of BWV, Iyengar, or Mindfulness over five weeks. Participants were assessed at pre- and post intervention for mood, sleep, mindfulness, absorption, health, memory, and salivary cortisol. Better overall mood and vitality followed both BWV and Iyengar training, while the BWV group alone had improved depression and sleep latency. Mindfulness produced a comparatively greater increase in absorption. All interventions improved stress and mindfulness, while no changes occurred in health, memory, or salivary cortisol. In conclusion, increased well-being followed training in all three practices, increased absorption was specific to Mindfulness, while BWV was unique in its benefits to depression and sleep latency, warranting further research.
- 저자Y.H.JUNG, D.H.KANG, M.S.BYUN, G.S.SHIM, S.J.KWON, G.E.JANG, U.S.LEE, S.C.AN, J.H.JANG, J.S.KWON
- 저널명Stress 15(1):97-104
- 초록Meditation may show differential effects on stress and plasma catecholamines based on genetic polymorphisms in brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT). Eighty adults (40 men, 40 women; mean age 26 years) who practiced meditation regularly and 57 healthy control adults (35 men, 22 women; mean age 26 years) participated. Plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) concentrations were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory was administered. The results were analyzed using two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with control and meditation subjects, gene polymorphism as factors, and meditation duration as the covariate. Two-way ANCOVA showed a significant interaction between control and meditation subjects, and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on DA/NE + DA/E (p=0.042) and NE/E + NE/DA (p=0.046) ratios. A significant interaction was found for control and meditation subjects with COMT Val158Met polymorphism and plasma NE concentrations (p=0.009). Post hoc ANCOVA in the meditation group, adjusted for meditation duration, showed significantly higher plasma NE concentrations for COMT Met carriers than COMT Val/Val subjects (p=0.025). Significant differences of stress levels were found between the control and meditation subjects in BDNF Val/Met (p<0.001) and BDNF Met/Met (p=0.003), whereas stress levels in the BDNF Val/Val genotype did not differ between the control and meditation groups. This is the first evidence that meditation produces different effects on plasma catecholamines according to BDNF or COMT polymorphisms.
- 저자Y.H.Jung, D.H.Kang, J.H.Jang, H.Y.Park, M.S.Byun, S.J.Kwon, G.E.Jang, U.S.Lee, S. C.An, J.S.Kwon
- 저널명Neuroscience Letters, 479, p138-142
- 초록This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p = .019) and lower scores on stress (p < .001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p = .031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r =-.408, p = .002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r = .267, p = .045) and DA/E (r = .271, p = .042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.
- 저자오미경, 김월순, 이성원, Rebecca Cheema, 이을순, 이승헌
- 저널명아동교육 제18권 제1호 2009. Vol. 18, No. 1, 169~181
- 초록Brain-oriented educational programs are increasingly popular. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a classroom-based Brain Education program, which is strongly focused on elementary children`s emotional intelligence, perceived stress, and stress coping strategies. Twenty-seven fifth-grade elementary school students completed the Brain Education program over the course of a full academic year. Twenty-five students in a control group participated on Chinese writing classes. Pre-test post-test comparisons were conducted through repeated measures ANOVA, to evaluate the impact of the Brain Education program. The brain education program positively influenced emotional intelligence and the degree of perceived stress, and the stress coping strategies. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms of benefit and recommendations for future research.
- 저널명한국스포츠리서치. 2007, 제18권 4호, 통권 103호, pp. 413-424
- 초록This study aims to examine the influence of 'Jangsaeng Walking' on activation conditions of brain and 'psychosomatic symptom' through comparison of 'common walking' and 'Jangsaeng Walking' with 40 women between 30 and 50 years old. 20 of 40 selected women were assigned to experimental group and 20 others to control group and experimental group conducted Jangsaeng Walking for 30 min. per semester through four times a week for 8 weeks. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured for 5 min. through 3 times at the first stability period, the second walking period and the third stability period. Electrode was attached to measured parts such as Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, T3, T4, P3 and P4 by International 10/20 electrode system and relative power and cross correlation analysis were conducted. Questionnaire of psychosomatic symptoms was conducted before measuring EEG and comparison between groups was performed. As a result of repeated measure two way ANOVA, relative power by each frequency band of EEG showed significant difference between groups in alpha wave and gamma wave and relative power of alpha wave and gamma wave and cross correlation coefficient were analyzed. In the analysis of relative power, alpha wave showed significant difference between groups in Fp1, Fp2, T3, T4 and P3 and gamma wave did in Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, T3 and P3. Experimental group showed significant decrease in alpha wave at the 2nd walking period compared to the first stability period, but gamma wave showed significant increase. In cross correlation analysis, alpha wave showed significant differences in total 11 electrode pairs and gamma wave did in 12 electrode pairs. In particular, at the second walking period, experimental group showed increase of functional cooperation between electrode pairs to parietal lobe centering around frontal lobe compared to control group. Changes of psychosomatic symptoms showed significant decrease at 'headache' and 'digestion' of four sub-factors in experimental group and it was found that perception of psychosomatic symptoms was improved.