Neural correlates of superior intelligence : Stronger recruitment of posterior parietal cortex.
- 저자K.H.Lee, Y.Y.Choi, Jeremy R. Gray, S.H.Cho, J.H.Chae, S.H.Lee, K.G.Kim,
- 저널명NeuroImage. Vol 29(2). 578~586.
- 초록General intelligence (g) is a common factor in diverse cognitive abilities and a major influence on life outcomes. Neuroimaging studies in adults suggest that the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices play a crucial role in related cognitive activities including fluid reasoning, the control of attention, and working memory. Here, we investigated the neural bases for intellectual giftedness (superior-g) in adolescents, using fMRI. The participants consisted of a superior-g group (n = 18, mean RAPM = 33.9 T 0.8, >99%) from the national academy for gifted adolescents and the control group (n = 18, mean RAPM = 22.8 T 1.6, 60%) from local high schools in Korea (mean age = 16.5 T 0.8). fMRI data were acquired while they performed two reasoning tasks with high and low g-loadings. In both groups, the high g-loaded tasks specifically increased regional activity in the bilateral fronto-parietal network including the lateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices. However, the regional activations of the superior-g group were significantly stronger than those of the control group, especially in the posterior parietal cortex. Moreover, regression analysis revealed that activity of the superior and intraparietal cortices (BA 7/40) strongly covaried with individual differences in g (r = 0.71 to 0.81). A correlated vectors analysis implicated bilateral posterior parietal areas in g. These results suggest that superior-g may not be due to the recruitment of additional brain regions but to the functional facilitation of the fronto-parietal network particularly driven by the posterior parietal activation.
 The effects of environmental luminance on colour perception in heightened sensory perception(HSP) trained children.
- 저자S.W.Kim, S.H.Ahn, D.P.Jang, J.H.Ku, Sumners D.P., U.S.Lee, Z.H.Cho S.H.Lee,
- 저널명Acta Physiologica, Vol 186, supplement 1, 249. Poster presentation
 Stimuls intensity dependence of colour perception by heightened sensory perception(HSP) trained children.
- 저자S.H.Ahn, S.W.Kim, D.P.Jang, J.H.Ku, Sumners D.P., U.S.Lee, Z.H.Cho S.H.Lee
- 저널명Acta Physiologica, Vol 186, supplement 1, 250. Poster presentation
 Preliminary studies of ESP developed by somatosensory training
- 저자S.H.Ahn, M.K.Sung, S.W.Kim, S.C.An, U.S.Lee. & S.H.Lee
- 저널명Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 23(1), 164 ~ 168.
- 초록Researchers of the Korea Institute of Brain Science(KIBS) have developed Brain Respiration(BR) which is a brain-development program using Qi. In the BR training course, we found paranormal phenomenon on which children could obtain visual information under conditions of non-visual sensing. We named the phenomenon HSP(Heightened Sensory Perception); it can be developed through a training program based on somatosensory perception. In view of that, HSP is considered to be different from extrasensory perception. In the paper, first, we summarize demonstrations of HSP since 1998. Second, we introduce EEG and fMRI results of HSP, where blindfolded subjects were presented with randomly displayed stimuli(colors and shapes) on a monitor. The control state was achieved in the same experimental conditions but with eyes-open and no blindfold. We found through fMRI and EEG analyses that during HSP specific areas were activated and alpha and gamma waves changed spatiotemporally. Finally, we discuss the problems raised in the experiments and their analyses.
 뇌호흡이 초등학생의 학습효율성에 미치는 영향
- 저자오미경, 신혜숙, 이승헌
- 저널명교육학연구, 2004. 6, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 511-542
- 초록본 연구의 목적은 초등학생의 학습효율성을 향상시키기 위하여 뇌호흡 프로그램을 개발〮적용하고 그 교육적 효과를 검증하는 데 있다. 이를 위하여 뇌호흡 전체 프로그램 중에서 일부를 발췌하여 뇌감각깨우기, 뇌용량 키우기, 뇌스피드 높이기의 세 영역으로 구성되는 뇌호흡 프로그램을 개발하였다. 초등학교 5학년 두 학급을 선정하여 사전〮사후검사 통제집단 설계를 적용하여 3개월간 주 2회(1회 40분) 총24회에 걸쳐 뇌호흡 프로그램을 실시하였다. 측정도구로는 학습효율성검사를 사용하였으며, 자료분석은 Repeated Measures ANOVA 방식을 사용하였다. 분석결과, 뇌호흡 프로그램은 초등학생들의 학습효율성에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 구체적 하위요인으로는 집중력, 학습전략, 학습수용성, 자기관리전략 및 정서조절 전략에서 유의미한 증가가 나타났다.
 뇌호흡 명상 훈련에 따른 프로농구선수의 기분상태 및 스트레스 호르몬 변화
- 저자심준영, 안승찬, 유하진, 이승헌
- 저널명한국체육학회지, 2004, 제43권, 제1호, pp.153-161
- 초록This study was to examine profiles of mood states(POMS) and changes of ACTH and Cortisol which are stress hormones in 10 pro basketball players when brain respiration program is applied to them. The experiment was conducted by total 6 times for one hour per session though two weeks and the results of two measurements before and after the last training were analyzed. POMS showed a significant reduction in depression, anger and fatigue which are negative emotional states of six sub-factors before and after the training and vigor which is positive emotional state increased after training and showed higher level than the whole mean, but there was a statistically significant difference. And the concentration of ACTH and Cortisol showed a significant reduction before and after training. The above conclusions suggested that short-term brain respiration meditation training was an effective training method to change mental emotional states and physiological stress hormone level affirmatively. Further, the future researches must analyze the physiological and psychological characteristics affecting mental health synthetically and develop brain respiration program suitable to the various items and classes.
 중·장년층의 스트레스 완화를 위한 뇌호흡 프로그램 적용 효과
- 저자심준영, 오미경, 안승찬, 이승헌
- 저널명한국스포츠리서치. 2003, 제14권, 제4호, pp.1341~1354
- 초록This study assigns 21 subjects randomly who had no brain respiration training and regular exercise experience to 7 subjects with brain respiration training, 7 subjects with aerobic exercise experience and 7 subjects of control group in order to examine their physiological reactions of stress when brain respiration program was applied to the middle-aged class in their thirties and forties, and the experiment was conducted for one hour per session by three times a week for 8 weeks. After eight-week experiment, it measured ACTH, Cortisol, heart rate(HR), skin conductance level(SCL) and breath rate(BR) before and after stimulus when they were exposed to auditory noise and mental arithmetic stressor and analyzed results. ACTH and Cortisol showed little change or reduction in brain respiration group before and after stimulus, compared to the increase of ACTH and Cortisol in aerobic exercise group and control group, but there was significantly significant trend in HR, SCL and BR. In particular, in ACTH density, brain respiration group showed a significant change between group and period and it is found that application of brain respiration program is effective in reducing vigorous maintenance of homeostasis of temporary stimulus and reaction against stress.
 12주간의 뇌호흡 명상 프로그램에 따른 세포성 면역 반응 분석
- 저자심준영, 안용덕, 신혜숙
- 저널명한국체육학회지 제42권 제1호 2003.01 121 - 133
- 초록This study conducts an experiment with 26 male students in the fourth grade of elementary school who have no brain respiration training and regular exercise experiences in order to examine the effects of brain respiration training for 12 weeks on cellular immunity reaction through six times a week (30 min. for brain respiration group and 20 min. for relaxation exercise group) through 12 weeks by random assignment of 10 students having brain respiration, 8 students having relaxation exercise and 8 students. The first measurement was in stability period before experiment and the second was in stability period after experiment for 12 weeks Measured items include T lymphocyte which is cellular immunity variable, helper T cell, suppressor T cell and Th/Ts ratio and as a result of analyzing these measurements, the following conclusions are obtained. 1) It is shown that the number of T lymphocytes a significant difference between interrelation effects according to each group and before and after experiment. 2) It is didn`t show that the number of helper T cell and suppressor T cells a significant difference between effects according to each group and before and after experiment. 3) It is shown that Th/Ts ratio a significant difference in effects before and after experiment and in interrelation effects according to each group and before and after experiment. These conclusions mean that as brain respiration training increases the Th/Ts ration which is an important index of immune ability, immune ability is improved and it suggests that it is able to change neurophysiological functions of human body. Therefore, brain respiration training is very helpful to improve health of human body and can approach to accessibility of brain respiration related to exercise.
 Changes in EEG of Children During Brain Respiration-Training.
- 저자 Y.Y.Kim, J.M.Choi, S.Y.Kim, S.K.Park, K.H.Lee, S.H.Lee
- 저널명The American Journal of Chinese medicine
- 초록Brain Respiration (BR)-training is a unique form of breathing exercise that develops potential ability by facilitating brain function. It is recognized as an effective method of improving the scholastic aptitude and emotional stability of children. The present study was designed to investigate the characteristics of the EEG during this training. Spectral analysis was used to examine the relative power in the EEG of 12 children while they practiced BR-training, and these were compared to those of 12 matched controls. BR-trainees showed a lower θ rhythm than the controls before the training session began and lower β2 power before, during and after the session. In contrast, the BR subjects showed greater relative α1 power than the controls in the left frontal region during BR-training, which persisted throughout the BR-training schedule. There is evidence that decreased θ and β waves may be correlated with emotional maturation, whilst increased α waves are associated with educational achievement. These findings enhance our understanding of the neurophysiological basis of the effects of BR-training upon emotion and maturation.
 Spatio-temporal Pattern of EEG in Young Brain Respiration-training Children
- 저자H.R.Kim, S.Y.Kim, D.J.Kim, Y.Y.Kim, S.K.Park, J.H.Chae, K.S.Kim, K.H.Lee, S.H.Lee
- 저널명The American Journal of Chinese medicine
- 초록We have evaluated the effect of 'Brain Respiration' training on brain activity using Karhunen-Loeve (KL) decomposition as a method for spatio-temporal analysis of the electroencephalogram(EEG). BR training is a form of breath-work to optimize the function of the brain by concentrating Qi energy in the brain. Recently, BR-training has been reported to improve emotional maturity (i.e., EQ), short-term memory and intuition (Yoo et al., 1998). EEG data were taken during BR-training from 12 young BR-trainees (average age: 9.4 years) who had trained for 4 to 14 months, and during relaxation from age matched non-trained children. Spatio-temporal analysis showed a significant difference of EEG dynamics in right prefrontal, right inferior frontal, posterior temporal, parietal and occipital areas between BR-trainees and the control group. Amplitude of eigenvector components of BR-trainees in the areas of frontal, temporal and occipital cortex was larger than that of non-trained children (values were smaller in parietal cortex), with remarkably high amplitude alpha coherence all over the scalp. These results suggest that BR-training possibly activates brain function through changes in the activity of the frontal association area where higher mental integration and creative activities are mediated.
 학습활동시 뇌호흡 수련학생과 일반학생의 뇌파분석(The Analysis of Electroencephalogram Between Brain Respiration Trained Students and General Students During Learning Activities)
- 저자조선희, 김수용, 진승현, 이건호, 김영윤, 장남기
- 저널명Korean J. Behav. Biol. 10(1): 43~58, 2001
- 초록We compared EEG(Electroencephalogram) between brain respiration trained elementary school students and general elementary school students. For this, we selected ten students. Five students are trained brain respiration over six months and the other five students are not. We measured EEG during learning activities and analysed EEG by using linear and nonlinear methods. In 16 positions of brain, we calculated ratio of delta, theta, alpha, beta and represented correlation dimension value in two-dimension surface in 16 positions of brain. EEG were various up to each student and each studying activity. Linear analysis results are as followed. High ratio of beta wave in F3, F4 channel were recognized in four students of brain respiration trained group and in one student of general students group during the eye closed state and imagination state. In language activities, we recognized high beta wave ratio appeared. On the other hand, in mathematic activates high delta, theta, alpha wave ratios were recognized. Brain respiration trained students showed higher beta wave ratio than general students in language activities. In mathematic activities, general students showed increasing alpha wave ratio but brain respiration trained students showed increasing delta, theta wave. Nonlinear analysis results are as followed. Concentration in F3, F4 channel appeared in four students of brain respiration trained group, two students in general student group. And brain respiration trained students showed high concentration to one channel in one activity. Also correlation dimension values in many channels were higher in brain respiration trained students group than in general students group. Comparing average value of five students with individual student value, variation gap of delta, theta, alpha, beta ratio of wave was small. And concentration position ranges are wide. Through those results, we can infer brain respiration trained students have activated F3, F4 channel and high concentration on doing inner brain information activities. And we suggest that individual EEG analysis as well as average EEG analysis be carried out.
 BRQ사용을 통한 초등학생의 뇌파변화에 관한 연구(Analysis of the EEG in elementary School Students through BRQ)
- 저널명한국인체과학학회지, Vol.2(1). 12-19.